Digestibility of Nutrients in Cassava Leaf Protein Concentrate by Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidae) and Clarias gariepinus (Clariidae)

Fagbenro A O


Two separate trials were conducted to determine the digestibility of nutrients in cassava leaf protein concentrate for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and African catfish. Fresh leaves of an improved cassava variety in Nigeria (cultivar TME 419), were harvested and processed into cassava leaf protein concentrate (CLPC); and was chemically analyzed for nutrient and antinutrient compositions using standard techniques. The apparent digestibility of dry diets TD1, TD2 (300g crude protein, 80g crude lipid, 17.5 MJ gross energy/Kg), CD3 and CD4 (400g crude protein, 120g crude lipid, 18 MJ gross energy/Kg), were determined O. niloticus) (6.3±0.5g) and C. gariepinus) (8.4±0.7g), respectively. The test diets (TD2, CD4) contained CLPC as total replacement for soybean meal (SBM) in control diets (TD1, CD3) (providing 80% of total dietary protein). Fingerlings were assigned in triplicate to treatments (60 fish/treatment) in a complete randomized design (60 fish/treatment) and fed to apparent satiation twice daily for 14 days. Water temperature (26.7-27.4°C), dissolved oxygen (5.78-6.94 mg/L) and pH (6.12-7.18) were within recommended ranges for tilapia and catfish culture. There were significant differences (P
<0.05) in ether extracts and gross energy digestibility between diets TD1 and TD2 while crude fibre digestibility between diets CD3 and CD4 differed significantly (P <0.05). Apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, and ash were similar (P >0.05) in tilapia and catfish. Nutrients in CLPC were as efficiently utilized as those in SBM by O. niloticus and C. gariepinus.

Full Text:



Adesina, S.A. (2014). Growth performance and nutrient utilization of Clarias gariepinus juveniles fed graded levels of differently processed sunflower (Helianthuss annuus) seed meal-based diets. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Ibadan, Ibadan.

Nigeria. Pp.306.

Aletor, O. (2010). Comparative, nutritive and physico- chemical evaluation of cassava (Manihot esculenta) leaf protein concentrate and fish meal. Journal of Food,Agricultureand Environment 8 (2): 39-43.

Atkinson, L.J., J.W. Hilton, and Slinger, S.J. (1984).

Evaluation of acid insoluble ash as an indicator of feed digestibility in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and AquaticScience1:1384-1386.

Bohnenberger, L., Gomes, S.D., Coelho, S.R.M. and Boscolo, W.R. (2008). Chemical composition and apparent digestibility of the cassava leaf protein concentrate (CLPC) for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Proceedings of the Brazilian Congress of Agricultural Engineering, International Livestock Environment Symposium - ILES VIII, Iguassu FallsCity,Brazil.

Bohnenberger, L., Gomes, S.D., Coelho, S.R.M. and Boscolo, W.R. (2010). Concentrado proteico de folhas de mandioca na alimentação de tilápias-do- nilo na fase de reversão sexual (Cassava leaf protein concentrate in Nile tilapia diets during sex reversal phase). Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia

(6): 1169-1174.

Dewi-Krisna.,A.P.W., Nursyam, H. and Hariati.,A.M. (2014). Response of fermented Cladophora containing diet on growth performance and feed efficiency of Tilapia (Oreochromis spp.). International Journal of Agronomy and Agricultural Research 5 (6): 78-85.

Fagbenro, O.A. (1996).Apparent digestibility of crude protein and gross energy in some plant and animal- based feedstuffs by Clarias isheriensis (Siluriformes: Clariidae) (Sydenham 1980). Journal of Applied Ichthyology12:67-68.

Fagbenro, O.A. (1998a).Apparent digestibility of various legume seed meals in Nile tilapia diets. Aquaculture International6:83-87.

Fagbenro, O.A. (1998b). Apparent digestibility of various oilseed cakes/meals in African catfish diets. Aquaculture International 6: 317-322.

Fagbenro, O.A. (1999). Apparent digestibility of various cereal grain by-products in common carp diets. Aquaculture International 7: 277-281.

Fagbenro, O.A. (2001a). Apparent digestibility of crude protein and gross energy in some plant- and animal-based feedstuffs by Heterotis niloticus (Clupeiformes: Osteoglossidae) (Cuvier 1829). Journal ofAquaculture in the Tropics 16: 277-282. Fagbenro, O.A. (2001b). Feedstuff digestibility in culturable freshwater fish species in Nigeria.

Proceedings of the First National Symposium on Fish Nutrition and Fish Feed Technology in Nigeria, pp. 26-37 (A.A. Eyo, editor). Fisheries Society of Nigeria and Nigerian Institute for Oceanography and Marine Research, Lagos, Nigeria.

Fagbenro, O.A. (2009a). Apparent digestibility of cucurbit seed meals in Nile tilapia diets. pp. 64. Book of Abstracts, 24th Annual Conference of Fisheries Society of Nigeria.Akure, Nigeria.

Fagbenro, O.A. (2009b). Apparent digestibility of

protein and energy in fibrous seed meals by herbivorous tilapias, Tilapia guineensis (Dumeril) and T. zillii (Gervais). pp. 34. Book of Abstracts, 24th Annual Conference of Fisheries Society of Nigeria.Akure, Nigeria.

Fagbenro, O.A. (2013). Overview on the use of

cassava by-products in aquafeeds. Applied

TropicalAgriculture 18 (2): 58-65.

Fagbenro, O.A. and Davies, S.J. (2001). Use of soybean flour (dehulled, solvent-extracted soybean) as a fish meal substitute in practical diets for African catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822): Growth, feed utilization and digestibility. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 17 (2): 64-69.Fagbenro, O.A., Adeparusi, E.O. and Jimoh, W.A. (2013). Apparent nutrient digestibility of sunflower and sesame seed meal in Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) fingerlings. Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 8: 43-50.

Falaye, A.E., Elezuo, K.O., Ajani E.K. and Omoike, A. (2016). Digestibility and nutrient utilization of differently processed tropical almond (Terminalia catappa) kernel meal and cake based diets by Clarias gariepinus juveniles. Journal of Agriculture, Science and Technology 17 (1): 42-

Fasuyi, A.O. and Aletor, V.A. (2005). Protein replacement value of cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz) leaf protein concentrate (CLPC) in broiler starter: Effect on performance, muscle growth, haematology and serum metabolites. International Journal of Poultry Science, 4, 339-349.Haylor, G.S. and Muir, J. (1998) A fish hatchery manual for Africa. Pisces Press, Stirling, Scotland, UK. 207pp.

Hepher, E., Sandbank, E. and Shelef, G. (1978).

Alternative protein sources for warm water fish diets. FAO, Rome (Italy).

Hossain, M.A. and Jauncey, K. (1989) Studies on the protein, energy and amino acid digestibility of

fish meal, mustard oil cake, linseed and sesame meal for common carp (Cyprinus carpio L). Aquaculture 83: 59-72.

Hossain, M.A., Nahar, N. and Kamal, M., (1997).

Nutrient digestibility coefficients of some plant and animal proteins for Rohu (Labeo rohita). Aquaculture 151: 37-45.

Jafri,A.K. andAnwar, M.F. (1995) Protein digestibility of some low-cost feedstuffs in fingerling Indian major carps. Asian Fisheries Science 8: 47-53.

Jimoh, W.A., Oladele-Bukola, M.O., Adebayo, M.D., Yusuff, A.A., Azeez, F.A. and Salami, O.O. (2014). Microbial flora of the gastro-intestinal tract of Clarias gariepinus caught from river Danduru, Nigeria. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences 12 (2): 19-24.

Kamarudin, M.S., Kalipan, K.M. and Siraj, S.S. (1989). The digestibility of several feedstuffs in Red Tilapia. Fish Nutrition Research in Asia. Proceedings of the 3rd Asian Fish Nutrition Network Meeting, Bangkok, 6-10 June 1988, pp.118-122.

Lovell, R.T. (1977). Digestibility of nutrients in feedstuffs of catfish. In: Stickney, R.R. and Lovell, R.T., editors, Nutrition and feeding of Channel Catfish,Auburn University,Auburn, pp. 33-37

Mgbenka, B.A. and Lovell, R.T. (1987). Digestibility of feedstuff and supplementary diets by grass carp. Nigerian Journal of Applied Fisheries and Hydrobiology 2: 65-71.

Mohanta, K.N., Mohanty, S.N., Jena, J.K. and Sahu, N.P. (2006). Apparent protein, lipid and energy digestibility coefficients of some commonly used feed ingredients in formulated pelleted diets for silver barb (Puntius gonionotus). Aquaculture Nutrition 12: 211-218.

Mukhopadhyay, N. (2001). Effect of fermentation in apparent and total nutrient digestibility of sesame (Sesamum indicum) seed meal in Rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton) fingerlings. Acta Ichthyologia Piscatura 31: 19-28.

Mukhopadhyay, N. and Ray, A.K. (1999). Utilization of copra meal in the formulation of compound diets for Rohu, Labeo rohita, Fingerlings. Journal ofApplied Ichthyology 15: 127-131.

Müller, Z. (1977). Improving the quality of cassava root and leaf product technology. Pages 120-126 in Cassava as animal feed. Proceedings, Cassava as Animal Feed Workshop, (B. Nestel and M. Graham, editors). University of Guelph, Canada. IDRC-095e: Ottawa.

Olvera-Novoa, M.A., Silvia, C.G., Mirna, S.G. and

Palacios, C.A. (1990). The use of alfalfa leaf protein concentrates as a protein source in diets for tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Aquaculture 9: 291-302.

Oresegun, A., Fagbenro, O.A., Ilona, P. and Edah B. (2016). Nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of cassava leaf protein concentrates from six cassava varieties for use in aqua feed. Cogent Food and Agriculture 2: 1147323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23311932.2016

Ravindran, V. (1993). Cassava leaves as animal feed; potential and limitations. Journal of Food Science and Agriculture 61:141-150.

Sarker, P.K., Gamble., M.M., Kelson, S. and Kapusinski., A.R (2016). Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) show high digestibility of lipid and fatty acids from marine Schizochytrium spp. and of protein and essential amino acids from fresh water Spirulina spp. feed ingredients. Aquaculture Nutrition 22: 109-119.

Singh, B.N. (1992). Digestibility of protein and energy from feedstuffs and pelleted diets in Mrigal, Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.) and Grass carp, Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val.). In: Wang, J.K. and Dehadrai, P.V., editors, Aquaculture Research Needs for 2000 AD, Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 135-142.

Sklan, D., Prag, T., Lupatsch, I. (2004). Apparent

digestibility coefficients of feed ingredients and their prediction in diets for tilapia Oreochromis niloticus x Oreochromis aureus (Teleostei, Cichlidae). Aquaculture Research 35 (4): 358-

Smith, R.R. (1971). A method for measuring digestibility and metabolizable energy of fish feeds. The Progressive Fish Culturist 33 (3): 132-

Sotolu, A.O. and Faturoti, E.O. (2008). Digestibility and nutritional values of differently processed Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. De wit) seed meals in diets of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research 3 (4):


Stickney, R.R. (1986). Tilapia tolerance of saline waters: a review, 48 (3): 161-167.

Sutriana., A. (2007). The use of cassava leaves as a dietary component forAfrican catfish fry. Journal Ked. Hewan 1(2): 59-65.

Tacon, A.G.J., Dominy, W.G. and Pruder, G.J. (1998).

Global trends and challenges in aquafeeds for marine shrimp. Aquafeed International 4: 25-35.

Unprasert, N.G. (1994). An evaluation of the use of “Ideal” Protein Concept to estimate essential amino acid requirements of the Clarias hybrid (Clarias macrocephalus x Clarias gariepinus). Ph.D. Dissertation, Mississippi State University, Starkville.