Acute Toxicity of Water Accommodated Fractions (WAFs) of Three Nigerian Crude Oils to Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822)

Hannah Omoloye Omogoriola, Oluwatoyin Simeon Ayoola

Abstract


Oil industry activities such as exploration, transportation, storage, use and disposal, as well as oil spills are sources of major contamination problems in Niger Delta, which have significant deleterious effects on aquatic organisms. The objective of this study was to report LC50 values obtained from acute toxicity tests on African Catfish, C. gariepinus using Water Accommodated Fraction (WAF) –Ebok, Meji and Erha. The acute toxicity concentrations of 0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%, 0%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% and 0%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% were used to determine the 96h Lethal Concentration (LC50) of Ebok (heavy), Meji (light) and Erha (medium) crude oils respectively. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there was a significant differences (p<0.05) in the quantal response of C. gariepinus to different concentrations of Ebok, Meji and Erha crude oils at 24, 48, 72 and 96hours of exposure. These results showed that 96LC50 values for WAF-Ebok, WAF-Meji and WAF-Erha crude oils on C. gariepinus were 0.028 mg TPH/l, 0.177 mg TPH/l and 0.742 mg TPH/l respectively. The 96LC50 of WAF showed that Ebok was six times more toxic than Meji and twenty six times more toxic than Erha and on toxicity categorization, WAF-Ebok, Meji and Erha were very highly toxic, highly toxic and highly toxic on C. gariepinus. Based on the acute toxicity tests, Ebok with lower API (<22.30C) gravity was more toxic than other crude oils on C. gariepinus. All crude oils are toxic to aquatic organisms especially the fish; their discharge into the water bodies during crude oil exploration, transportation, storage and even sabotage should be discouraged for a safety environment.
Keywords: Acute Toxicity, Crude oils, Water Accommodated Fraction, C.gariepinus, API gravity.

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